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Engine Construction

Exhaust valves

Open to discharge combustion gases from the cylinders.

Cylinder head

The indented lower surface forms the upper portion of the combustion chamber.

Intake valves

Open to draw the air-fuel mixture into the cylinders.


Driven by timing belt or chain. It opens and closes the intake and exhaust valves.

Timing belt/chain

Synchronizes the rotation of the camshafts, which open and closes the intake/exhaust valves, with the movement of the crankshaft.


Move up and down in the cylinder as a result of receiving the pressure created by the explosion of the air-fuel mixture.

Oil pan

Receptacle for engine oil.


Converts the up-and-down motion of the piston into rotational motion via the connecting rods. This motion is transferred to the transmission which makes the vehicle move.